WWDC Notes

Unsafe Swift

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What exactly makes code “unsafe”? Join the Swift team as we take a look at the programming language’s safety precautions — and when you might need to reach for unsafe operations. We’ll take a look at APIs that can cause unexpected states if not used correctly, and how you can write code more specifically to avoid undefined behavior. Learn how to work with C APIs that use pointers and the steps to take when you want to use Swift’s unsafe pointer APIs. To get the most out of this session, you should have some familiarity with Swift and the C programming language. And for more information on working with pointers, check out "Safely Manage Pointers in Swift".

To get the most out of this session, you should have some familiarity with Swift and the C programming language. The following notes will assume you understand pointers in C.

Unsafe and Safe

  • The distinction between safe and unsafe constructs is the way their implementations deal with invalid input.
  • Most operations in the standard library fully validate their input before executing.
  • Safe operations have well-defined behavior on all input.
  • Unsafe operations have undefined behavior on some input.
  • Force unwrap operator is safe because we can fully describe its behavior for all possible inputs.
  • Optional provides an unsafe force-unwrapping operation through its unsafelyUnwrapped property. This property does not verify the underlying value to be non-nil.
  • By using unsafe properties, you assume full responsibility to fulfill its requirements.
// Optional's force unwrapping operator

let value: Int? = nil

print(value!) // Fatal error: Unexpectedly found nil while unwrapping an Optional value
// Unsafe force-unwrapping

let value: String? = "Hello"

print(value.unsafelyUnwrapped) // Hello
// Invalid use of unsafe force-unwrapping

let value: String? = nil

print(value.unsafelyUnwrapped) // Guaranteed fatal error only in debug builds

Benefits of unsafe interfaces

  • Interoperability with code written in C or Objective-C.
  • Control over runtime performance.

Safe code ≠ no crashes

  • Safe APIs guarantee to stop execution by raising a fatal runtime error.
  • Swift is a safe programming language means its language and library-level features fully validate their input.

Unsafe Pointers

  • Unsafe pointer types are roughly on the same level of abstraction as pointers in the C programming language.

Treat it as a C pointer. Think about malloc(), calloc(), free(), how C treats an array and array arithmetic in C.


This picture shows memory from lower memory address (top) to higher memory address (bottom).

  • Swift has a flat memory model.
  • A linear address space of individually addressable 8-bit bytes (64-bit).
  • Memory address is a hexadecimal integer value.
  • As app executes, the state of its memory keeps evolving.

Manual memory management example

let ptr = UnsafeMutablePointer<Int>.allocate(capacity: 1)
ptr.initialize(to: 42)
print(ptr.pointee) // 42
ptr.pointee = 23 // UNDEFINED BEHAVIOR
  • Allocating an UnsafeMutablePointer<Int> creates a storage location and gives back a pointer to it.
  • Pointer gets invalidated as the underlying memory is deinitialized and deallocated.
  • ptr.pointee is dereferencing pointer ptr.
  • Dereferencing a NULL pointer is a serious programming error.
  • Xcode provides Address Sanitizer to help you catch memory corruption errors.
  • For more, refer to Safely manage pointers in Swift session.

Mapping C pointers to Swift

A big reason to use pointers in Swift is interoperability with unsafe languages like C or Objective-C.

// C:
void process_integers(const int *start, size_t count);

// Swift:
func process_integers(_ start: UnsafePointer<CInt>!, _ count: Int)
  • C function processes a buffer of integer values.
  • The const int *start gets translated into an implicitly unwrapped Optional unsafe pointer type in Swift.

Use a pointer

let start = UnsafeMutablePointer<CInt>.allocate(capacity: 4)

start.initialize(to: 0)
(start + 1).initialize(to: 2)
(start + 2).initialize(to: 4)
(start + 3).initialize(to: 6)

process_integers(start, 4)

start.deinitialize(count: 4)
  1. Use UnsafeMutablePointer to allocate a dynamic buffer suitable for holding integer values.
  2. Use pointer arithmetic and dedicated initialization methods to set up the buffer's elements to particular values.
  3. Call the C function, passing it the pointer to the initialized buffer.
  4. Deinitialize and deallocate the buffer.

🚨 Every step is fundamentally unsafe:

  • The lifetime of the allocated buffer is not managed by the return pointer.
  • Remember to manually deallocate it at the appropriate time, or it will cause a memory leak.
  • Initialization cannot automatically verify that the addressed location is allocated.
  • Deinitialization only makes sense if the underlying memory has been previously initialized with values the correct type.

Buffer Pointers

Swift Standard Library provides four unsafe buffer pointer types:




UnsafeMutableRawBufferPointer <Element>

  • Buffer pointers check against out-of-bounds access through their subscript operation, which adds a little safety to it.

Accessing contiguous collection storage




Temporary pointers

Get a temporary pointer to an individual Swift value, then pass to C functions.

  • Generated pointers is only valid for the duration of the closure's execution. (Before it get deallocated from stack.)
// C:
void process_integers(const int *start, size_t count);

// Swift:
let values: [CInt] = [0, 2, 4, 6]

values.withUnsafeBufferPointer { buffer in
  print_integers(buffer.baseAddress!, buffer.count)
  • Store input data in an Array value.
  • Use withUnsafeBufferPointer method to temporarily get direct access to the array's underlying storage.
  • Extract the start address and count values, pass them directly to the C function.

Special syntax:

let values: [CInt] = [0, 2, 4, 6]

print_integers(values, values.count)
  • Simply pass an array value to a function expecting an unsafe pointer.
  • The compiler will automatically generate the equivalent withUnsafeBufferPointer for us.

Implicit value-to-pointer conversions:


Here is a C function provided by the Darwin module that we can use to query or update low-level information about the running system.

// C:
int sysctl(int *name, u_int namelen,
				 void *oldp, size_t *oldlenp,
				 void *newp, size_t *newlen);

// Swift:
func sysctl(
  _ name: UnsafeMutablePointer<CInt>!,
  _ namelen: CUnsignedInt,
  _ oldp: UnsafeMutableRawPointer!,
  _ oldlenp: UnsafeMutablePointer<Int>!,
  _ newp: UnsafeMutableRawPointer!,
  _ newlen: Int
) -> CInt

Create a function that retrieves the size of a cache line for the processor architecture we are running on.

import Darwin

func cachelineSize() -> Int {
	// The information is available under the identifier 'CACHELINE' in the hardware section.
    var query = [CTL_HW, HW_CACHELINE]
    // The information we want to retrieve is a C integer value.
    var result: CInt = 0
    // The size of integer type buffer.
    var resultSize = MemoryLayout<CInt>.size
    let r = sysctl(&query, CUnsignedInt(query.count), &result, &resultSize, nil, 0)
    // Sysctl is documented to return zero value on success.
    precondition(r == 0, "Cannot query cache line size")
    // Expect the call to set as many bytes as there are in a C integer value.
    precondition(resultSize == MemoryLayout<CInt>.size)
    return Int(result)

print(cachelineSize()) // 64
  • The function will set resultSize to the number of bytes it copied into result.
  • Because we only want to retrieve the current value, not set it, we supply nil value for the new value buffer, and set its size to zero.

Expand the code above into explicit closure based calls:

import Darwin

func cachelineSize() -> Int {
    var query = [CTL_HW, HW_CACHELINE]
    return query.withUnsafeMutableBufferPointer { buffer in
        var result: CInt = 0
        withUnsafeMutablePointer(to: &result) { resultptr in
            var resultSize = MemoryLayout<CInt>.size
            let r = withUnsafeMutablePointer(to: &resultSize) { sizeptr in
                sysctl(buffer.baseAddress, CUnsignedInt(buffer.count),
                       resultptr, sizeptr,
                       nil, 0)
            precondition(r == 0, "Cannot query cache line size")
            precondition(resultSize == MemoryLayout<CInt>.size)
        return Int(result)

print(cachelineSize()) // 64

This code is functionally equivalent to the code above.

Clousure-based vs. implicit pointers

var value = 42
withUnsafeMutablePointer(to: &value) { p in
  p.pointee += 1
print(value)  // 43
  • Closure-based design makes the actual lifetime of the resulting pointer far more explicit.
  • Helping us avoid lifetime issues.
var value2 = 42
let p = UnsafeMutablePointer(&value2) // BROKEN -- dangling pointer!
p.pointee += 1
  • Passing a temporary pointer to the mutable pointer initializer escapes its value out of the initializer call.
  • Accessing the resulting dangling pointer value is undefined behavior.

Prefer to use closure-based APIs in pure Swift code.

Initializing contiguous collection storage

New initializers that allow us to create an Array or a String value by directly copying data into their underlying uninitalized storage.



Find out the kernel version of the operating system we're running on.

import Darwin

func kernelVersion() -> String {
	// Identified by VERSION entry in the kernel section.
    var query = [CTL_KERN, KERN_VERSION]
    var length = 0
    let r = sysctl(&query, 2, nil, &length, nil, 0)
    precondition(r == 0, "Error retrieving kern.version")
    // The initializer gives us a buffer point that we can pass through the sysctl function.
    return String(unsafeUninitializedCapacity: length) { buffer in
        var length = buffer.count
        // The function will copy the version string directly into this buffer.
        let r = sysctl(&query, 2, buffer.baseAddress, &length, nil, 0)
        precondition(r == 0, "Error retrieving kern.version")
        precondition(length > 0 && length <= buffer.count)
        // Check the last byte is zero, corresponding to the NUL character terminating a C string.
        precondition(buffer[length - 1] == 0)
        // Discard the NUL character.
        return length - 1

// Darwin Kernel Version 19.5.0: Thu Apr 30 18:25:59 PDT 2020; root:xnu-6153.121.1~7/RELEASE_X86_64
  • We don't know the size of the version string in advance, so we need to cause this control twice.
  • On the first sysctl return, the length variable will get set to the number of bytes required to store the string.
  • Don't need for manual memory management, by using this new String initializer.
  • Get direct access to a buffer that will eventually become storage for a regular Swift string instance.
  • Don't need to manually allocate or deallocate memory.


  • Follow the requirements of each unsafe interface.
  • Keep unsafe API usage to the minimum.
  • Use UnsafeBufferPointer for memory buffers.
  • Test with the sanitizers.

Missing anything? Corrections? Contributions are welcome 😃


Written by


Leonard Chan

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